déjà lu

by WCAA

Déjà Lu ("Already read") is an initiative of the World Council of Anthropological Associations that aims at pluralizing the dissemination of anthropological knowledge on a global level.

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Guide to foreign language texts

 

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ISSN 2414-4444

GUIDE TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEXTS – READING ONLINE THROUGH Translate.Google.Com

Advice and experience offered by Guven Witteveen,

Déjà Lu readers will find all articles accompanied by English language abstracts, but the full text may or may not be offered in English. The following advice may help readers with little or no experience of a given language to work through the text. Likewise for authors who wish their article to appear in English or another language, the same online approaches can produce a usable draft of the text

 

Q. I have a limited reading knowledge of several languages, but wish to see the article in my own language as a convenience and cross-check of my comprehension. As a reader how can I make my own translation of articles in languages I sort-of know and also the ones I do not know?

 

A. Each month the volunteers for the online translation service at http://translate.google.com add more depth and accuracy to the website by correcting errors little by little. The best results come from pasting phrases or whole sentences into the website. It works best on short, direct sentences. But much scholarly work is long and structured with dependent clauses or qualifications or other conditions to limit the author’s truth claims. It may be poetic or use indirect expression, too. While a complete document can be automatically be changed into another language, the result may include many nonsensical constructions. So it is best to render one fragment or phrase at a time. Getting a native-speaker colleague to polish the rough translation will make a good article, but if you only need the gist of the article, the online magic of translate.google.com may be good enough.

 

Q. I would like my featured Déjà Lu article to be offered in English (or language of the author’s choosing). If I do not have time or talent for this, what are some possible options?

A. There are professional services locally or online, but reasonable results are possible with Google Translate, too: Make a rough draft to the target language (e.g. English) one sentence or phrase at a time, because whole paragraphs’ or documents’ automatic translation often produces errors. Then partner with a native speaker of the language (e.g. English) to polish the rough translation. A few questions will arise and this will require some clarification or discussion.

 

Q. I read an article in the source language (not English, for example) but now I wish to share with colleagues who read only English. How can I make the translation for them?

 

A. The same process, above, goes from small segments of machine translation and then polishing by high-proficiency or native speaker of the target language. But if polish is not needed for the purpose of skimming or seeking specific elements and citations, then there are two ways to translate entire documents automatically, imperfect though the result will be: either paste the entirety of the source text into the Input Box at translate.google.com [up to maybe 5000 characters (keystrokes) for each translation job], or else by using the Chrome browser there is a built-in tool to make the entire page or document display into another language. Right-click near the top of the main body of the webpage to see a pop-up menu for "translate this page." There is an options menu to specify your target language, just one time or as default. At the translate.google.com location, as well, there is the traditional technique of back-translation: press the reverse arrows to see if the supplied string of translated text arrives back at a good approximation of the original language.

本稿は父系親族組織を特徴とする中国貴州省のミャオ族を事例に、その民族衣装を介して形成 される母娘関係について検討する。特に衣装の製作・所有・譲渡の様態と、婚礼後に見られる実家・ 婚家間での女性の移動パターンが、1990年頃を境に大きく変化した点に着目する。清水昭俊は、 親子の身体的・霊的要素の連続性からかつての接触や融合を想起することで繋がれる両者の関係 を、呪術的な性格をもつ「共感的な」関係と表現した。これに対し本稿では、現地の社会経済的 な変化とともに生起した母と娘との関係を明らかにすることで、この関係もまた衣装を介して「共 感的」に築かれたことを指摘する。

1980年代までミャオ族の女性は婚礼を挙げると 一 旦実家に戻り、数年滞在してから婚家での生 活を始めていた。新婦は実家での滞在を終え、婚家へと移動する際に衣装を持参していたのであ る。しかし1990年代以降、この実家での滞在期問は数日問に縮小され、新婦は早々と婚家での生 活を始めるか、夫とともに出稼ぎに出るようになった。その一方で、衣装を婚家へ持参する時期 は、その後の第2 子出産か実母の死去まで延期されるようになったのである。これにより娘が実 家を離れてもなお、衣装を介した母娘関係は持続するようになった。

以上の事例から、衣装がつなぐ母娘間の「共感的」関係は、身体的・霊的要素によって内在的 に親子の間に存在したのではなく、むしろ現地の社会経済的な動態を背景に築かれたことを示す。 すなわち、衣装の価値の高まりと、実母が娘の衣装を製作するというサイクルの普及、および婚 姻の変化によって、衣装は既婚女性の(実家ないし婚家への)帰属に働きかけるものとなった。 これにより、母親が娘のために製作した衣装をめぐって母娘間に新たな所有の関係が生まれ、そ こに娘の婚家への移動過程の変化を反映した意味づけがなされたことにより、1990年代以降、衣 装を介した母娘の「共感的」関係が動態的に生起したことを指摘する。



キーワード:母娘関係, 「共感的」関係, 民族衣装, ミャオ族, 中国